Basic Electrical Wiring with Diagrams

Do you want to add an extra wall socket or a lamp by yourself? Do you want to replace your old ceiling fan with a new one? Electrical wiring is not as difficult as it seems. This article will show you how to wire some basic household connections.

mains switch cutoutDisclaimer: Please note that working with electricity involves danger to life if not done carefully. Turn off the mains supply from the main switch or cutout before starting to work. Reconfirm that the current is off with the help of a tester.

Note: Always call a certified electrician for installing your house wiring or major electrical repair work. You may try a minor modification or repair work only when you know what you are doing and you are confident enough.

Basics of household electric wiring

A service wire, which comes from the nearest service pole to the house, contains two conductors – one is phase and the other is neutral. An electricity meter sits between the service wire and the main fuse cutout box. After the mains cutout, a distribution board is employed which distributes supply to the rooms inside the house through fuses or circuit breakers. Here, a third conductor is introduced which is grounded through a copper rod buried into the ground. So, from the distribution panel, we get three wires – phase, neutral and ground. Specific colored wires are used for different conductors. Common practice in India is to use Red for phase, Black for neutral and Green for ground. However, this color code is not similar for all countries. Learn about wiring color codes in different regions on this link.

How to wire a lamp?

Wiring a lamp with a switch in the circuit is pretty simple. As shown in the diagram below, connect the conductor to one terminal of the switch. The other terminal of the switch goes to one terminal of the lamp (or load). Connect the neutral wire to the remaining terminal of the switch. This is called as connecting a switch in series with the load. The following diagram shows you how to wire a lamp.
how to wire a lamp


How to wire a wall outlet/socket?

This is also as simple as wiring a lamp. Phase wire goes to one terminal of the switch and the other terminal goes to one terminal of the socket. Note that the phase should be connected to ‘L’ labeled terminal of the socket. L stands for line/phase and N stands for neutral. Connect the neutral wire to ‘N’ terminal. If the labels are not visible or not present, connect the phase to the left side terminal when facing back of the socket. Connect the ground wire or earthing wire to the bigger terminal at the top. However, some Indian sockets have 5 terminals on the back. In this case, when facing back of the socket, connect phase wire to both of the left terminals and neutral to both of the right terminals. When looking at the front side of the socket, phase should be at the right.
how to wire a wall socket or outlet


How to wire a ceiling fan with a regulator?

Connect the phase wire to one terminal of the switch. The other terminal of the switch goes to one terminal of the fan regulator. The other terminal of the regulator goes to the ceiling fan. The remaining terminal of the ceiling fan is connected to the neutral wire. Many fans provide a screw on the body to connect the ground wire. From the following figure, you can easily understand how to wire a ceiling fan.
how to wire a ceiling fan


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